- As a reminder, the software can be freely downloaded following the link to the right.
I have also been updating the software regularly, so be sure to update
your version if you have downloaded it previously.
Here's a video overview of what we are doing with OOM at Oklahoma
State University. Instructional videos for the software are linked to
- A good place to start with OOM if you don't have the book are the
Innovative Teaching and Four Bad Habits articles and videos linked to the left.
- January 22nd, 2019. Congratulations to
Craig and Abramson on their recent publication covering Ordinal
Pattern Analysis! It can be found in the International Journal of
Comparative Psychology. Craig, D. P, & Abramson, C. I. (2018).
Ordinal pattern analysis in comparative psychology - A flexible
alternative to null hypothesis significance testing using an observation
oriented modeling paradigm. International Journal of Comparative
Psychology, 31. Retrieved from
- October 15th, 2018. A special thanks to
Kevin Weinfurt and the faculty and staff at Duke University Medical School, Department of Population Health Sciences for hosting two talks and a workshop on OOM! I am also particularly grateful for the commentary of
Daniel Mark and
Rick Hoyle, and the discussion time with
Patrick Curran, and others. With his permission, I've uploaded Rick Hoyle's
Powerpoint slides here for viewing.
- July 17th, 2018. A special thanks to Elizabeth McClure from the Lego Foundation.
She visited my lab at Oklahoma State
University this week to study OOM with the hopes of bringing more
person-centered methods to projects sponsored by the foundation.
- May 15th, 2018. Congratulations to
David Trafimow and many other authors for their paper titled:
Manipulating the alpha level cannot cure significance testing
online in Frontiers in Psychology (Quantitative Psychology and
Measurement). We published this paper in response to arguments for
lowering the standard p-critical value from .05 to .005 as a way
to improve psychological research and to help cure the replication
problem in psychology. As we have argued extensively in our OOM papers,
NHST should largely be abandoned and replaced with integrated modeling,
non-parametric (pattern-based) types of analyses, randomization tests,
and -- of course -- exact replication.
- April 14th, 2018. Congratulations to
Eliwid Medellin who presented a poster at the 64th annual meeting of the
Southwestern Psychological Association in Houston, TX! Here's his poster
titled Logical Hypothesis Testing. He
reports results from two studies showing how logical combinations can be
evaluated in OOM. Eliwid was also selected as the Student of
the Month for May of 2018. Congratulations, Eliwid!
- April 14th, 2018. Congratulations to
Meggie Baker who presented a poster at the 64th annual meeting of the
Southwestern Psychological Association in Houston, TX! Here's her poster
titled Person-Centered Methods for
Personality Profiling. She reports results from her summer project
American Indians Into Psychology program at OSU. Her study examined
the use of the Ordinal Analysis option in OOM to detect group
- March 23rd, 2018. A sincere
thank-you to the faculty, students, and staff of Baylor University!
A particular word of gratitude to
Alex Beaujean, who orchestrated my visit during which I delivered a
talk and short workshop on the OOM software. It was a pleasure meeting
the wonderful faculty, and it was an honor to visit Baylor University
and Waco, Texas!
- March 3rd, 2018. I presented a brief
talk titled: Methodological Incorrigibility and its Cost to
Innovation. I presented at the 9th Midwinter Meeting of the
Society for Theoretical
and Philosophical Psychology, Phoenix, AZ. March 3rd, 2018. My talk
was part of a symposium titled: Scientific Psychology’s Troubling
Methodological Incorrigibility: Its Nature, Sources, and Possible
Solutions, James Lamiell, Chair.
December 23rd, 2017. Congratulations to
Evan Jordan and David Thomas who published a paper titled
Contagious Positive Affective Responses to Laughter in Infancy in
Archives of Psychology (Vol 1, no. 2). The paper is open access and
demonstrates use of the Ordinal Pattern (Concatenated Orderings)
analysis in the OOM software.
December, 2017. Congratulations to Lisa D.
Cota, newly minted OSU Ph.D.! She defended her dissertation (in my
absence, due to a medical issue) titled An Examination of
Alternatives to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing. She conducted
simulations comparing OOM to Bayesian statistics. Here's
October 29th, 2017. All of the dated
instructional videos have been deleted. New videos are included under
the Instructional Videos link to the right. With any luck, I'll build a
large set of videos in the coming months so that a person can learn the
software through independent study.
September 8th, 2017. I've published a short
comment regarding NHST in Basic and Applied Social Psychology,
Comment on Locascio's Results Blind Manuscript Evaluation Proposal.
September 4th, 2017. Congratulations to
Sebastian Sauer who has published a paper titled
Observation Oriented Modeling Revised from a Statistical Point of View.
The paper appears in the latest online pre-prints at Behavior
Research Methods. Here's an interesting quote from the paper:
sum, our refined OOM approach is optimal in terms of the regression of
indicator matrices and can be seen as a naive Bayes classifier, methods
that are well known in statistical learning (Hastie et al., 2009).
Unless stated otherwise, we have used this revised version of OOM
throughout the paper." In the Build/Test Model feature of the OOM
software, Sauer's refined approach can be accessed by selecting the
"Conforming Only" normalization option. As pointed out by Sauer, the
results will be equivalent to a Bayesian classifier.
August 15th, 2017. We've published a paper
titled Four Bad Habits of
Modern Psychologists in Behavioral Sciences. I will be posting the
data sets and instructional videos on how we analyzed the data in OOM in
the near future. Citation: Grice, J., Barrett, P., Cota, L., Felix, C.,
Taylor, Z., Garner, S., Medellin, E., & Vest, A. (2017). Four Bad Habits
of Modern Psychologists. Behavioral Sciences, 7(3), 53.
February 14th, 2017. Congratulations to
Michaluk, L. M., DeVore, S., Stewart, G. B., and Stewart, J. C. for
publishing their recent book chapter New Directions in Educational
Research Methodology and Analytical Techniques [Chapter 4, pp.
90-131, in D'Souza, M. J., SJ (Editor) Teaching and Learning in
Higher Education: Emerging Trends, United Scholars Publications,
USA, 2016]. They compared OOM with traditional statistics in analyses of
gender differences in test scores and self-efficacy.
August 2nd, 2016. We have published a paper
demonstrating the new Threshold Analysis in OOM which can be used
as an alternative to logistic regression analysis. The Threshold
Analysis also permits the automatic construction of logical
combinations of orderings. Here's the paper:
A Simple and Transparent Alternative to Logistic Regression. Advances in
Social Science Research Journal, 3(7), 147-165.
July 7th, 2016. Congratulations to Gatobu,
Arocha, and Hoffman-Goetz on their recent paper Numeracy, Health
Numeracy, and Older Immigrants' Primary Language: An
Observation-Oriented Exploration published in Basic and Applied
Social Psychology. Here's a link to the abstract:
May 27th, 2016. An updated version of the
OOM software was posted along with an updated version of the technical
manual (in MS Word format). Please follow the link to the right to
download the program and manual for free.
March 30th, 2016. Congratulations to Lübke
and Sauer who presented a poster at the annual DAGStat meeting in
Göttingen, 16 March 2016. Here's a link to the
and a link to the data:
conclude: "Observation Oriented Modelling [Grice, 2011]
was proposed to overcome some of the problems in the application of
statistical inference methods in human and behavioural sciences. We
review and refine this approach and show connections to methods well
known in statistical learning. From this point of view it can be shown
that Observation Oriented Modellng can indeed be appropriate for some of
the tasks in the analysis of observed data. For a practical example, the
revised method is demonstrated by analysing the effect of mindfulness
training on attentional processes."
January 11th, 2016. Craig et al. have
published yet another paper using OOM! Here's the citation and link:
Craig, D. P. A., & Abramson C. I. (2015). A need for individual data
analyses for assessments of temporal control: Invertebrate fixed
interval performance. International Journal of Comparative Psychology
- Special Issue on Timing and Time Perception, 28, 1-39.
September 10th, 2015. Our
paper on an alternative to ANOVA has been published in Sage Open. Here
the citation and link:
Grice, J. W., Craig, D. P. A., & Abramson, C. I. (2015). A simple and
transparent alternative to repeated measures ANOVA. Sage Open,
July-September, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/2158244015604192
August 30th, 2015. David Craig
and co-authors have published another study on learning in which they
used OOM. Here's the citation: Craig, D. P. A., Varnon, C. A., Pollock,
K. L., & Abramson, C. I. (2015). An assessment of horse (Equus ferus
caballus) responding on fixed interval schedules of reinforcement:
An individual analysis. Behavioural Processes, 120, 1-13. Here's
a link to the article's abstract.
August 10th, 2015. We have published an OOM
article in Basic and Applied Social Psychology in a
special issue devoted to critiques of modern statistical mediation
analysis. All of the papers in this special issue are worth reading
and seriously considering.
Here's the link to the abstract of our paper. BASP is not open
access; consequently, if you have trouble locating the article, please
contact me at email@example.com.
- July 24th, 2015. I have published an
OOM article in Frontiers demonstrating how to diagram and analyze an
integrated model. Personally, I have found this diagramming task to be
both challenging and rewarding because it forces me to sit down and
really think about the structures and processes underlying the data.
Check out this article and see what you think:
- May 6th, 2015. Congratulations to
Charles Abramson and his co-authors on their recent publication:
Abramson, C. I., Craig, D. P. A., Varnon, C. A., & Wells, H. (2015). The
effect of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera
anatolica): Response inhibition in a social insect model.
Alcohol, 49, 245-258. They employed OOM in their analyses.
Personally, this is one of my favorite quotes from the article: "These
analyses are concerned with model fit and are not concerned with
rejecting or failing to reject a hypothesis. If no null hypothesis is
made, it is impossible to be correct, or incorrect, about rejecting
something that does not exist" p. 248-249. If only a majority of
psychologists could demonstrate such fortitude and understanding, we
might actually make some progress as a science.
- April 16th, 2015. I presented a talk on OOM
to the faculty and students at The
University of Tennessee Chattanooga. It was a pleasure meeting the faculty
and students who mainly hailed from the
department of psychology,
and I owe a special thanks to
Chris Cunningham for orchestrating the visit.
- April 14th, 2015. I presented a talk to
researchers at the
Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army
Institute of Research, in which I highlighted the many problems with
the p-value in psychology. I also demonstrated OOM briefly. It was a
pleasure and an honor to meet everyone at this historic and noble
facility. I've posted the annotated Powerpoint slides for this talk to
the left under Presentations (NHST Critique and OOM).
- April 8th, 2015. The editors of
Basic and Applied Social Psychology have banned NHST! OOM does not
employ NHST procedures as emphasis is placed squarely on pattern
recognition and accuracy (the PCC index). When a probability statistic
is requested, it is most often a simple, distribution-free randomization
test; otherwise, a simple binomial can be used on occasion.
- March 19th-20th, 2015. I presented a
talk and OOM workshop to the faculty and students at
The University of Central Arkansas. It was a pleasure meeting the faculty
and students in the department of psychology
and counseling, and I owe special thanks to
for orchestrating the visit.
- On October 10th, 2014, I presented a talk to the faculty and
students at Georgetown University
entitled Observation Oriented Modeling: A Common Sense Alternative to
Modern Data Analysis. I also delivered a workshop demonstrating the
OOM software later that afternoon. It was a pleasure meeting the faculty
and students in the
department of psychology, as well as
who drove in to hear the talk.
- On September 19th, 2014, I presented a talk entitled Preparing
Students for Research in the 21st Century with Observation Oriented
Modeling. It was presented at the 8th annual conference of the
Oklahoma Network for the Teaching of Psychology, Stillwater, OK.
- July 28th, 2014. Congratulations to Craig et al. on the publication
of their latest
honeybee learning paper published in PlosOne. Graphs and simple
statistical analyses in OOM are all you need!
- July 27th, 2014. We have submitted two papers for review comparing OOM to repeated measures ANOVA and to logistic regression. If you are
interested in examining these papers please send me an e-mail:
- July 27th, 2014. While working on a paper comparing OOM to repeated
measures ANOVA, my co-author (David Craig) fortunately found the work of
Warren Thorngate, Ph.D.
Dr. Thorngate created a method of data analysis he named Ordinal
Pattern Analysis. You can read about it in
Advances in Psychology or in Valsiner's book
The Individual Subject and Scientific Psychology. The Ordinal
Pattern Analysis in OOM accomplishes most of the goals in Dr.
Thorngate's technique, but using a visual tool for defining the expected
ordinal patterns. Credit is certainly due to Dr. Thorngate regardless,
as he first published the basic idea behind the analysis.
- June 9th, 2014. Lisa Cota presented OOM at the
4th annual meeting of the Association for the Assessment of
Learning in Higher Education (AALHE)
in Albuquerque, NM. Her Powerpoint slides are linked to the left. OOM
appeared to be well received, particularly given the nonparametric
nature of assessment data and the desire to focus on individual student
outcomes. Interestingly, David Eubanks, an expert in assessment
analysis, advocated for the same sorts of pattern-based, visual and
nonparametric analyses found in OOM in his talk From Data to
Understanding. Personally, I'm excited to see what new features I
can add to the software to make it even more useful for assessment work.
- March 25th, 2014. The Innovative Teaching paper, with data sets and
videos, is now published in the newest journal offered by
Ammons Scientific. The links to the
paper, data sets, and videos are to the left!
- March 16th, 2014. Lisa Cota, a graduate student at OSU, and myself
presented OOM to faculty at OSU as part of assessment training. The
video was shot and produced by the outstanding folks of
ITLE at OSU. You can watch
the video here. Sorry about the coughing! I think it was mild
allergies or a cold.
- March 10th, 2014. I've added a link to a recent paper by Dinges et
al., 2013, published in the Journal of Experimental Biology.
Congratulations to Chris, a graduate student at OSU, and his co-authors!
- March 3rd, 2014. The OOM software is now being offered for
can download the latest version of the software using the link to the
right. The software is still under copyright protection and should not
therefore be altered or used for profit without written permission from
- November 21st, 2013. Version 2 is ready! The
latest version has several new analysis features, and
the output across analyses is streamlined and more consistent. The
technical manual has also been completely updated.
- August 4th: A graduate student at OSU has been running OOM on his
Mac using Winebottler (http://winebottler.kronenberg.org/).
This might work as an alternative to booting a Mac in PC mode or using
other software like VMWare Fusion.
is a commercial product that will also permit you to run OOM on a Mac.
- July 26th: Added video showing new import feature. Data from SPSS,
SAS, Excel, and other programs can quickly be imported through .csv
files. Value labels can also be imported from SAS and SPSS.
- July 11th: Katy Valentine's and
paper in which they used OOM has been published in the Journal of
Cognitive Psychology. Valentine, K.D., & Buchanan, E.M. (2013). JAM-boree:
An Application of Observation Oriented Modeling to Judgments of
Associative Memory. Journal Of Cognitive Psychology, 25(4), p.
- April 9th, 2013:
Brian Haig's invited
presentation for the
Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association
(Fort Worth, TX, April 5-7) was a smashing success. The
title of his talk was, How Research Methods Textbooks Mislead
Psychologists about the Scientific Method. You can view
his Powerpoint slides here.
- March 17th, 2013. Updated several links. Added link for
Reviews of the OOM book.
- Feb 3rd, 2013. Beta testing Version 2 of the OOM software is
ready for release. If you own a copy of Version 1, please e-mail me if
you are interested in Beta testing Version 2 (james.grice]aatt[okstate.edu).
- New paper published by Erika Brown demonstrating mediation analysis in OOM.